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Interesting facts about space.

Oxygen isotopes on the Earth and Moon measure the same according to the specimens gathered from the Moon, meaning that the Earth and Moon did indeed form at the same distance from the Sun. Finding a theory that could satisfy all three of these specific facts would prove to be rather difficult. There have been three major theories about how the moon was created that have been discounted. Below we will discover what each of these three theories proposed and why they were deemed to be unlikely or impossible. The Fission Theory. The Fission Theory proposes that the Moon was created in the early history of our solar system when something caused the Earth to break apart and a large part of the Earth was cast into space which eventually formed into the Moon. This idea supported the fact that the Earth and Moon share similar mantles, but where this theory falls apart involves the actual physics it would take to create such a scenario. The amount of angular momentum and energy required to create this situation would make the current placement of the Earth and Moon next to impossible. Thus, the fission theory has been deemed incorrect. The Capture Theory. The Capture Theory contends that the Moon came to be obtained by the Earth after it formed in a different location in the solar system, shedding light on the Moon's different composition. There are a couple problems with this scenario. Since we know that the Earth and Moon have the same oxygen isotopes on their surfaces, therefore meaning they would have the same amount of baking from the Sun, it doesn't explain how the Moon would have encountered the extra baking on its surface. The physics behind this call for a lot of specific things to happen, such as the Moon entering Earth's gravitational speed at just the right speed, at just the right distance to allow for the current set-up. Not only would it have to approach the Earth with these two requirements, but there would also have to be something that could slow the Moon down., however, capture into the Moon's present orbit is very improbable. Something would have to slow it down with just the right gravitational pull to cause the Moon to fall into Earth's orbit. While complicated, this could have been possible, but it is very unlikely. The Co-Formation Theory.



and here is another

A fourth, more recent model, is based on the existence of a synestia. A synestia is a doughnut-shaped cloud composed of vaporized molten rock. This recently discovered inhabitant of the Universe is believed to take shape when planet-sized bodies catastrophically blast into one another with both high energy and angular momentum. Soon after the discovery of these puffy celestial "doughnuts" in 2017, planetary scientists came to the realization that they may have a new way to explain Moon-birth. The ancient collisions, that create a synestia, are so violent that the objects that form from these cosmic crash-ups melt and partially vaporize. Ultimately, after having cooled off sufficiently to solidify, they create (almost) spherical planets, such as those inhabiting our own Solar System.



and finally

Earth's Moon was thought to be The Moon--and the only moon--until Galileo Galilei took his primitive telescope up to the roof of his house in Padua in January 1610. Galileo aimed his telescope up to the clear starlit night sky above his home--one of the first to be used for astronomical purposes--and aimed it at the giant planet Jupiter. As a result, Galileo discovered the four large Jovian Galilean Moons, eventually named in his honor: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Our Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth in 27 Earth days and it rotates (spins) at that same rate--meaning, in that same amount of time. Because our planet is also moving--rotating on its axis as it circles our Star--from our viewpoint, our lunar companion appears to circle us ever 29 days.



If this ancient catastrophic impact really did occur, there should be deposits of these tragic moons on the Martian surface. The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is currently planning a sample return mission to Phobos and Deimos, the Martian Moons Explorer, and NASA has plans to eventually return samples to Earth from the surface of Mars-- perhaps as soon as the 2020s. At the conclusion of their paper, the authors note, "Our scenario provides further motivation for a sample return mission to the Martian satellites."



Crida and Charnoz tested their new model to find out whether it could be applied to other planets in addition to Saturn. Their investigation has brought to light several valuable facts. This scenario for moon-birth from planet-rings succeeds in offering an explanation as to why the largest moons dwell farther away from their parent planet than the smaller moons. It further explains the gathering of moons close to the Roche limit--their birthplace--on the outermost fringes of the rings. This distribution is in agreement with what is seen in the Saturn-system. The same scenario can also apply to the moons of other giant planets, such as the ice-giants Uranus and Neptune. The Uranus-system and the Neptune-system are also organized in a similar way. This discovery suggests that long ago, when these planets were young, they also sported impressive rings like those of Saturn--which ultimately vanished when their moons were born. Finally, this scenario can also explain the formation of Earth's Moon, and the moons of the dwarf planet Pluto. According to Crida and Charnoz's calculations, under special circumstances a single moon--like Earth's own--can be born from a primordial ring around its planet. This may well have occurred in both the case of Earth's single large Moon, and for Pluto's largest moon, Charon.